vorige Hefte

Volker Wollmann:
Mining Sights in Transylvania

In antiquity and the middle ages, Transylvania was well-known and attractive above all because of its wealth of precious metals. The rich gold deposit influenced the invasion plans of the Roman emperor Trajan; only a few years after conquering the province of Dacia after 105 AD he arranged for miners from Dalmatia experienced in deep-pit mining to be settled especially in the vicinity of the Roman town of Alburnus Maior (today Rosia Montana). Dating back to the roughly 165-year Roman occupation of Dacia are numerous headings driven with hammer and wedge, miners' tools and sophisticated technical devices for lifting mine water (bucket wheels).

The article provides an overview of the development of mining in Transylvania from the middle ages to the early modern period with its industrialisation right up to the 20th century. Not only the changing systems of rule but also the economic and technical conditions are taken into account. Special attention is paid to the history of salt extraction, and selected technical monuments are described. Finally, fine and applied arts referring to mining are outlined.